Bygate M. (1987) Speaking Oxford University Press |LINK|

Bygate M. (1987) Speaking Oxford University Press |LINK|


Bygate M. (1987) Speaking Oxford University Press

this research was conducted to see how students’ ability and desire in speaking could be improved by participating in the english debate community. this is done because many of the students have difficulty in speaking activities even though they already know various kinds of vocabulary and sentence structures. this research is a type of literature review research by reading and recording the thoughts of experts from various sources. from the results of this study, it was found that students’ english-speaking skills improved in terms of fluency by regularly participating in the english debate community. this happens because by participating in the english debate activities students are forced to speak and think quickly in english and this makes them very accustomed to speaking.

so, if this is the case, then we should make sure that we are giving learners purpose rather than just a never-ending succession of speaking activities. perhaps that is where the role of the teacher lies. i, and my colleagues, have been studying the teaching of speaking for many years. we have looked at the classroom environment, we have looked at the teaching and we have looked at the results. although there are lots of resources on the web for teachers who want to learn more about teaching speaking, what i have to say is, we found one important problem that is rarely addressed. that is, speaking in the classroom. in order to find an answer to this problem, we have been studying the research that other teachers have been doing for many years, we have been observing the teaching that we do and we have been listening to our learners. some of the more important things that we have found out are: speaking in the classroom is not always easy, this is why so many resources are written for teachers who want to learn how to teach speaking. the problem is that although there are lots of resources on the web for teachers who want to learn more about teaching speaking, what i have to say is, we found one important problem that is rarely addressed.

my main publications are tasks in second language learning (co-authored with virginia samuda, palgrave, 2008), researching pedagogic tasks (co-edited with peter skehan and merrill swain, pearson educational 2001), grammar and the language classroom (co-edited with alan tonkyn and eddie williams, prentice hall, 1994), and speaking (oup, 1987), and guest-edited a special issue on ‘tasks in language pedagogy’ for the journal language teaching research (2000). i co-edited the journal applied linguistics from 1998-2004, and am on the boards of applied linguistics, language teaching research, and language teaching.
the truth is, there are all sorts of fears. but, whatever your fear of public speaking, it can affect your life at work, at home and every other place you visit. if you want to beat your fear, you have to know your fear and what it is you fear.
there is a quite new field of research in this area; it is known as ‘virtual reality exposure’. this technique has the advantage that the virtual environment can replicate that of the real-world and can be tailored to the particular fear. for example, if you fear public speaking, you can sit in a virtual environment that looks like an audience and when you start to speak your fear will be erased. this technique also allows you to experiment with different levels of fear and the effect of different levels of physical feedback on your ability to control your fear.
this is the first study to examine the effectiveness of vr exposure for the treatment of social phobia in an english-speaking sample. the results showed that vr exposure is a promising and effective treatment for social phobia. however, the effects of this treatment are not lasting and a follow-up assessment was needed.


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